Contact Us
Blog >> Blog Details Page

12 Commonly Used Components on PCBs for Beginners

Posted:09:33 AM December 19, 2023 writer: iotbyhvm


Welcome to the exciting world of electronics! If you're just starting your journey into making cool electronic stuff, understanding the basics is key. Think of a printed circuit board (PCB) as the superhero behind your gadgets. In this guide, we'll break down 12 common components found on PCBs. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are like electronic puzzle boards that connect and support different electronic parts on a circuit board. If you're new to PCBs, figuring out the parts can be confusing. In this article, we'll talk about 12 common components on PCBs for beginners. If you've tried working with PCBs before, you might have struggled to identify certain components. We get it, and to help, we've created a tutorial. Think of it as a solution to the scattered information problem. Our tutorial on printed circuit board components has lots of info and pictures to help you recognize these parts.

In the world of making circuit boards, PCBs are most important. But choosing the right components for the board can be tricky. Some parts of a circuit board are standard and easy to find, but others might be specific to your project, making things more complicated. Understanding the components you need is crucial for smooth PCB assembly. This article takes you through the important aspects of PCB components in a systematic way. We give you a detailed look at the necessary features, ensuring a smooth process when assembling your PCB.

Printed Circuit Board

Printed Circuit Boards, commonly known as PCBs, are an essential component in modern electronic devices. They provide a platform for connecting and supporting various electronic components to create functional circuits. A PCB typically consists of a non-conductive material, such as fiberglass, with a thin layer of conductive material, like copper, on one or both sides. Engineers etch the conductive layer to create pathways, called traces, enabling electrical signals to flow between components.

Get Instant Online Quote

Resistors Printed Circuit Board[/caption]

Components, such as resistors, capacitors, and integrated circuits, are soldered onto the PCB, forming a complete circuit. The traces on the PCB provide the necessary connections between these components, enabling the device to function as intended.

Using printed circuit board parts in electronic devices offers several advantages:

  • Compactness: PCBs allow for the miniaturization of circuits, making electronic devices smaller and more portable.
  • Reliability: The use of PCBs reduces the risk of loose connections or short circuits, ensuring the reliability and longevity of the device.
  • Efficiency: PCBs provide precise and efficient pathways for electrical signals, minimizing signal loss and interference.
  • Cost-effectiveness: Manufacturers mass-produce pcb parts, making them a cost-effective solution for electronic device manufacturing.

As technology advances, PCBs continue to evolve. The demand for more compact and efficient electronic devices drives the development of smaller and more complex PCB designs. Additionally, the use of environmentally friendly materials and manufacturing techniques is becoming increasingly important in the industry.


Resistors are essential components in electronic circuits that regulate the flow of electric current. They are designed to resist the flow of electrons, hence the name. By limiting the current, resistors help control voltage levels and protect sensitive components from damage. There are various types of resistors available, each with its own characteristics and applications.

Resistors Resistors[/caption]

The most common types include:

  • Carbon Composition Resistors: These are inexpensive and widely used in general applications.
  • Metal Film Resistors: Precision circuits commonly use metal film resistors, known for their accuracy and stability.
  • Wirewound Resistors: These resistors are capable of handling high power and are often used in power circuits and amplifiers.

Resistors are typically color-coded to indicate their resistance value. The color bands on the resistor represent different digits and multipliers. By decoding these color bands, you can determine the resistance value of a resistor. There are online calculators available that can help you with this process. 

You may also like : What Is A 10k Resistor?


Capacitors are electronic components that store and release electrical energy. It consists of two conductive plates separated by an insulating material called a dielectric. When a voltage is applied across the plates, one plate becomes positively charged, while the other becomes negatively charged. This creates an electric field between the plates, storing electrical energy.

Capacitors Capacitors[/caption]

There are various types of capacitors available, each with its own characteristics and applications. Some common types include electrolytic capacitors, ceramic capacitors, film capacitors, and tantalum capacitors. They are used in power supply circuits to smooth out voltage fluctuations and provide stable power. They are also used in timing circuits, filtering circuits, motor starting circuits, and audio systems.
When selecting a capacitor for a specific application, factors such as capacitance value, voltage rating, temperature stability, and size should be considered. It is important to choose a capacitor that meets the requirements of the circuit and the desired performance.


Inductors are passive electronic components that store energy in the form of a magnetic field. People commonly use them in power supplies, where they help filter out unwanted noise and stabilize voltage. Inductors are also essential components in radio frequency (RF) circuits, where engineers use them in filters, oscillators, and amplifiers. An inductor consists of a coil of wire wound around a core material, such as iron or ferrite. When an electric current flows through the coil, a magnetic field is created. The strength of this magnetic field depends on the number of turns in the coil and the current flowing through it.

Inductors Inductors[/caption]

One of the key properties of inductors is their ability to resist changes in current. When the current flowing through an inductor changes, the magnetic field also changes. This change in magnetic field induces a voltage in the inductor, which opposes the change in current. This property is known as inductance. Inductors are also used to control the speed and torque of the motor by varying the amount of inductance in the circuit. Inductors also find applications in wireless charging systems, transformers, and inductance-based sensors.


A potentiometer, often referred to as a pot, is a three-terminal variable resistor that allows you to control the flow of electric current. It is commonly used in a variety of electronic devices, such as audio equipment, amplifiers, and volume controls. In audio equipment, they are used to adjust volume, balance, and tone. In lighting systems, they can be used to control brightness. They are also used in industrial settings for position sensing, calibration, and control. A potentiometer consists of a resistive element and a sliding contact, also known as a wiper. By adjusting the position of the wiper along the resistive element, you can change the resistance and thus control the current flow.

Potentiometers Potentiometers[/caption]

Potentiometers are available in different types, including rotary and linear, depending on their application. When selecting a potentiometer, consider factors such as resistance range, power rating, and physical size. Linear potentiometers are suitable for applications that require a linear response, while rotary potentiometers are ideal for applications that need continuous rotation. On using a potentiometer, it's important to avoid applying excessive force to the wiper, as it can damage the resistive element. Additionally, keep in mind that potentiometers can wear out over time, so periodic cleaning and maintenance may be necessary to ensure optimal performance.


Transformers are like electrical messengers that move energy between circuits, either boosting or reducing the voltage along the way. They play a crucial role in electronic circuits, especially when it comes to transferring electrical energy between different devices. They're like energy messengers, helping the electrical energy move in various ways, either increasing or decreasing the voltage. This process is often referred to as voltage transformation. Picture transformers having a metal core, similar to regular inductors, and surrounded by a series of coils – at least two coils, known as the primary and secondary coils. The electrical energy flows through the secondary coil, defining the path it takes.

Transformers Transformers[/caption]

There are different types of transformers, each designed for specific applications and functions. Here are some common types of transformers:

  1. Power Transformers:
    • Distribution Transformers: Used to distribute electrical energy from power plants to homes and businesses.
    • Power Substation Transformers: Found in electrical substations to step up or step down voltage for efficient power transmission.
  2. Instrument Transformers:
    • Current Transformers (CT): Measure current levels in power systems for metering and protective relay applications.
    • Voltage Transformers (VT) or Potential Transformers (PT): Measure high voltage and step it down for metering and protective relay purposes.
  3. Audio Transformers:
    • Used in audio equipment: Designers create these transformers to transmit audio signals efficiently while maintaining signal quality.
  4. Isolation Transformers:
    • Provide electrical isolation: Used to separate two parts of an electrical circuit, preventing the flow of current between them. Commonly used for safety and noise reduction.
  5. Auto Transformers:
    • Single-winding transformers: They have a common winding shared by both the primary and secondary circuits, offering variable voltage output.
  6. Step-Up and Step-Down Transformers:
    • Step-Up Transformers: Increase voltage for long-distance power transmission.
    • Step-Down Transformers: Decrease voltage for local distribution and household use.

Get Free Shipping For Components


Diodes are two-terminal devices that allow current to flow in one direction while blocking it in the opposite direction. They are made of semiconductor materials, typically silicon or germanium. They have a PN junction, which consists of a P-type and an N-type semiconductor material. When a forward voltage is applied across the diode, the PN junction allows current to flow freely. However, applying a reverse voltage causes the PN junction to act as a barrier, preventing current from passing through.

Diodes Diodes[/caption]

There are several types of diodes, each designed for specific applications. Some common types include:

  • Rectifier Diodes
  • Zener Diodes
  • Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
  • Schottky Diodes
  • Varactor Diodes


A transistor is a device that can amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It acts as a gatekeeper, controlling the flow of current within a circuit. Manufacturers make transistors from semiconductor materials, such as silicon or germanium, which possess unique electrical properties. There are different types of transistors, including bi-polar junction transistors (BJTs) and field-effect transistors (FETs). Each type has its own advantages and applications. People commonly use BJTs in amplifiers and switches, while FETs are often present in digital circuits and integrated circuits.

Transistors Transistors[/caption]

Transistors have made it possible to create compact, high-performance electronics. Their small size and low power consumption make them ideal for portable devices. They also allow for faster and more efficient processing, enabling the development of advanced technologies like artificial intelligence and virtual reality. As technology continues to advance, transistors are becoming even smaller and more powerful. Scientists are exploring new materials and techniques to push the limits of transistor technology. From carbon nanotubes to graphene, the future of transistors holds exciting possibilities.

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)

The SCR, also known as a thyristor, is a semiconductor device that allows current to flow in one direction only. Its unique characteristic of being able to switch on and off at specific trigger points makes it incredibly versatile. This ability to control the flow of electricity has made the SCR an indispensable part of modern electronics. One of the primary uses of an SCR is in power control applications.

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier Silicon-Controlled Rectifier[/caption]

People commonly find it in dimmer switches, motor speed control, and voltage regulators. By adjusting the trigger angle, the SCR can regulate the amount of power flowing through a circuit, allowing for precise control and energy efficiency. Another key application of the SCR is in the field of power electronics. It finds wide usage in high-voltage transmission systems, where it aids in converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). This conversion is essential for efficient power transmission over long distances. Furthermore, SCR-based circuits are also utilized in various industrial applications. They play a crucial role in welding machines, battery chargers, and even in the control of electric heaters. The SCR's reliability, compact size, and ability to handle high power levels make it an ideal choice for these demanding environments.

Integrated Circuits

Integrated circuits, also known as ICs or microchips, consist of multiple electronic components such as transistors, resistors, and capacitors, all etched onto a small silicon wafer. Engineers interconnect these components circuit board to create complex circuits that perform specific functions. The magic of integrated circuits lies in their ability to pack thousands, or even millions, of electronic components on a circuit board or a single chip. This miniaturization allows for faster processing speeds, increased functionality, and reduced power consumption.

Integrated Circuits Integrated Circuits[/caption]

In the consumer electronics sector, they power our smartphones, tablets, and smart home devices. In the medical field, they enable life-saving devices such as pacemakers and insulin pumps. They are also crucial in the automotive industry, controlling everything from engine performance to entertainment systems. As technology continues to advance, the demand for more powerful and efficient integrated circuits grows. Researchers are constantly pushing the boundaries of miniaturization, exploring new materials and manufacturing techniques to create even smaller and more powerful chips. The future holds exciting possibilities, including the development of flexible and wearable integrated circuits.

Crystal Oscillators

Crystal oscillators are electronic devices that generate precise and stable frequencies using the mechanical vibrations of a crystal. A crystal oscillator consists of a crystal, usually quartz, and an electronic circuit. When an electric field applies to the crystal, it vibrates at a specific frequency, known as the resonant frequency. The electronic circuit amplifies this vibration and generates a stable and accurate output signal. Crystal oscillators play a crucial role in timekeeping devices, such as watches, clocks, and even GPS systems. The precise frequency generated by the crystal ensures accurate timekeeping, allowing us to synchronize our activities and stay punctual.

crystal oscillators

There are various types of crystal oscillators, including the most common ones:

  • Simple Crystal Oscillators: These are basic oscillators that provide a stable frequency output.
  • Temperature-Compensated Crystal Oscillators (TCXO): These oscillators adjust their frequency based on temperature changes to maintain accuracy.
  • Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillators (VCXO): These oscillators allow frequency adjustments by applying a varying voltage.

Switches and Relays

Switches and relays are essential components in various electronic and electrical systems. They play a crucial role in controlling the flow of electricity and ensuring the smooth operation of devices. A switch is a device that allows or interrupts the flow of electric current in a circuit. It acts as a bridge that connects or disconnects the electrical path. People commonly use switches to turn devices on or off, control the direction of current, or select between different circuits.

Switches & Relays Switches & Relays[/caption]

There are several types of switches, including toggle switches, rocker switches, push-button switches, and rotary switches. Each type has its unique design and functionality, catering to specific applications and user preferences.

A relay is a switch operated by electricity that employs an electromagnet to control the opening and closing of its contacts. It acts as a remote-controlled switch, allowing a small electrical signal to control a larger current. People commonly use relays to control high-power devices, isolate circuits, or provide electrical protection. Relays come in various configurations, such as electromagnetic relays, solid-state relays, and reed relays. Each type offers distinct advantages and is suitable for different applications, depending on factors like voltage, current, and switching speed requirements. Switches and relays are crucial components that enable the control and operation of electrical systems.


A sensor is a tool designed to identify and react to various inputs originating from the surrounding physical surroundings. These inputs may encompass light, heat, motion, moisture, pressure, or various other environmental factors. Typically, the sensor generates an output, often in the form of a signal, that can be directly translated into human-readable information at the sensor site or electronically transmitted through a network for interpretation or additional analysis.



The most common types of sensors are as follows : -

  • Proximity sensor : Many devices, such as smartphones and automatic doors, feature this sensor. It detects the presence of nearby objects and helps prevent accidental touches or collisions.
  • Temperature sensor : Various applications utilize it, including weather monitoring systems, home thermostats, and even medical devices. By accurately measuring temperature, these sensors help us stay comfortable and healthy.
  • Motion sensors :We widely use them in our daily lives, commonly finding them in security systems, automatic lights, and gaming consoles. These sensors detect movement and trigger a response, ensuring our safety and convenience.
  • Pressure sensors : They are crucial in many industries, including automotive and aerospace. They measure the force exerted on an object and provide valuable data for monitoring and control purposes. Without pressure sensors, many of our modern technologies would not be possible.
  • Light sensor : Devices like cameras and smartphones incorporate this sensor, enabling them to adjust the brightness of the screen based on the surrounding light conditions. It helps save battery life and provides a better viewing experience.

Get Free PCB Assembly


In conclusion, this article has provided a comprehensive overview of 12 commonly used components on printed circuit boards (PCBs) for beginners. Exploring the role and significance of each component in electronic circuits, ranging from resistors and capacitors to more complex elements like integrated circuits and crystal oscillators. The discussion covered the fundamental characteristics and functions of these components, shedding light on their importance in the realm of PCB design and electronics.

By delving into the intricacies of components such as sensors, switches, and relays, are parts of a pcb the article aimed to equip beginners with a foundational understanding of the diverse elements that make up a circuit board components. The emphasis on identification and the role of each component contributes to the reader's ability to navigate and comprehend electronic circuits effectively. As electronic devices continue to evolve, ic board components, a solid understanding of these components becomes increasingly crucial for enthusiasts, hobbyists, and professionals alike. This article, with its comprehensive coverage and emphasis on clarity, aims to empower beginners in their journey to grasp the essentials of circuit board parts design and electronic systems.

You may also be interested in...

Diode Testing: A Comprehensive Guide for Beginners

SPDT Switch: A Comprehensive Guide Is Here

Free Worldwide Shipping on Over 600,000 Electronics Components with HQ Online

Free PCB Assembly Offer is Now Live: Experience Reliable PCB Assembly from HQ NextPCB

HQ NextPCB Introduces New PCB Gerber Viewer: HQDFM Online Lite Edition

  • PCB
  • PCB
  • SMD

Dimensions: (mm)


Quantity: (pcs)


Other Quantities:(quantity*length*width is greater than 10㎡)




Quote now