A. Ground design
In electronic equipment, grounding is an important method of controlling interference. If the grounding and shielding are properly combined, most of the interference problems can be solved. The ground wire structure in the electronic device is roughly systematic, chassis ground (shielded ground), digital ground (logically), and analog ground. Pay attention to the following points in the ground line design:
1. Correct selection of single point grounding and multi-point grounding
In the low-frequency circuit, the operating frequency of the signal is less than 1MHz, and the influence of the inductance between the wiring and the device is small, and the circulating current formed by the grounding circuit has a great influence on the interference, so a grounding should be adopted. When the signal operating frequency is greater than 10MHz, the ground impedance becomes very large. In this case, the ground impedance should be reduced as much as possible. When the operating frequency is between 1 and 10 MHz, if a grounding is used, the grounding length should not exceed 1/20 of the wavelength. Otherwise, the multi-point grounding method should be used.
2. Separate the digital circuit from the analog circuit
The circuit board has both high-speed logic circuits and linear circuits. They should be separated as much as possible, and the ground wires of the two should not be mixed, and they are connected to the power ground. Try to increase the grounding area of the linear circuit.
3. Try to thicken the ground wire
If the grounding wire is very thin, the grounding potential changes with the change of the current, causing the timing signal level of the electronic device to be unstable and the anti-noise performance to deteriorate. Therefore, the ground wire should be as thick as possible so that it can pass the three allowable currents on the printed circuit board. If possible, the width of the ground wire should be greater than 3mm.
4. Connect the ground wire to a closed loop
When designing the grounding system of a printed circuit board consisting only of digital circuits, making the grounding line into a closed loop can significantly improve the noise immunity. The reason is that there are many integrated circuit components on the printed circuit board, especially when there are components with high power consumption, due to the limitation of the thickness of the grounding wire, a large potential difference will be generated on the ground junction, causing the noise resistance to decrease. If the ground structure is looped, the potential difference will be reduced to improve the noise immunity of the electronic device.
B. Electromagnetic compatibility design
Electromagnetic compatibility refers to the ability of an electronic device to work in a coordinated and efficient manner in various electromagnetic environments. The purpose of the electromagnetic compatibility design is to enable the electronic device to suppress various external interferences, enable the electronic device to work normally in a specific electromagnetic environment, and at the same time reduce the electromagnetic interference of the electronic device itself to other electronic devices.
1. Choose a reasonable wire width
Since the transient interference generated by the transient current on the printed wiring is mainly caused by the inductance component of the printed conductor, the inductance of the printed conductor should be minimized. The inductance of a printed conductor is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its width, so that short and precise conductors are advantageous for suppressing interference. Signal lines for clock leads, row drivers, or bus drivers often carry large transient currents, and the printed conductors should be as short as possible. For the discrete component circuit, when the width of the printed conductor is about 1.5mm, the requirement can be fully satisfied; for the integrated circuit, the width of the printed conductor can be selected between 0.2 and 1.0mm.
2. Adopt the correct wiring strategy
The use of equal traces can reduce the wire inductance, but the mutual inductance and distributed capacitance between the wires increase. If the layout allows, it is better to use a well-shaped mesh wiring structure. The specific method is that one side of the printed board is laterally routed, and the other side is longitudinally routed. Metallized holes are then connected at the intersection holes. In order to suppress the crosstalk between the printed circuit board wires, the long-distance equal routing should be avoided when designing the wiring.
C. Decoupling capacitor configuration
In a DC power supply loop, changes in load can cause power supply noise. For example, in a digital circuit, when a circuit transitions from one state to another, a large spike current is generated on the power line to form a transient noise voltage. The configuration of decoupling capacitors can suppress the noise generated by load changes. It is a common practice for the reliability design of printed circuit boards. The configuration principles are as follows:
The power input terminal is connected to a 10~100uF electrolytic capacitor. If the position of the printed circuit board is allowed, the anti-interference effect of the electrolytic capacitor above 100uF will be good.
A 0.01 uF ceramic capacitor is provided for each integrated circuit chip. If you encounter a small printed circuit board space and can not fit, you can configure a 1 ~ 10uF tantalum electrolytic capacitor every 4 ~ 10 chips, the high-frequency impedance of this device is particularly small, the impedance is less than 1Ω in the range of 500kHz ~ 20MHz, Moreover, the leakage current is small (0.5 uA or less).
For devices with weak noise capability, large current changes during shutdown, and memory devices such as ROM and RAM, the decoupling capacitor should be directly connected between the power supply line (Vcc) and the ground (GND) of the chip.
The leads of the decoupling capacitors must not be too long, especially if the high frequency bypass capacitors are not leaded.
D. The size of the printed circuit board and the layout of the device
The size of the printed circuit board should be moderate. When the size is too large, the printed lines are long and the impedance is increased. The noise resistance is reduced and the cost is high. If it is too small, the heat dissipation is not good, and it is susceptible to interference from adjacent lines. In terms of device layout, as with other logic circuits, the related devices should be placed as close as possible to achieve better noise immunity. The clock generator, crystal, and CPU clock inputs are prone to noise and are close to each other. Devices that are prone to noise, small current circuits, high-current circuits, etc. should be kept away from logic circuits as much as possible. If possible, it is important to make a separate board.
E. Heat dissipation design
From the perspective of facilitating heat dissipation, the printed plate is preferably installed upright, and the distance between the plates and the plate is generally not less than 2 cm, and the arrangement of the devices on the printed plate should follow certain rules:
• For devices that use free convection air cooling, it is best to arrange the integrated circuits (or other devices) in a vertically long manner; for devices that use forced air cooling, it is best to use integrated circuits (or other devices) in a horizontally long manner. row.
• The devices on the same printed board should be arranged as far as possible according to their heat generation and heat dissipation. Devices with low heat generation or poor heat resistance (such as small signal transistors, small scale integrated circuits, electrolytic capacitors, etc.) should be placed in the cooling. The uppermost flow (in the inlet) of the airflow, the device with high heat or good heat resistance (such as power transistors, large-scale integrated circuits, etc.) is placed at the most downstream of the cooling airflow.
• In the horizontal direction, the high-power devices are placed as close as possible to the edge of the printed board to shorten the heat transfer path; in the vertical direction, the high-power devices are placed as close as possible to the top of the printed board to reduce the temperature of other devices while these devices are operating. influences.
• Temperature sensitive devices should be placed in the lowest temperature area (such as the bottom of the device). Do not place it directly above the heat sink. Multiple devices are preferably staggered on a horizontal plane.
• The heat dissipation of the printed circuit board in the device mainly depends on the air flow, so the air flow path should be studied during design, and the device or printed circuit board should be properly configured. When the air flows, it tends to flow in a place with low resistance. Therefore, when configuring the device on the printed circuit board, avoid leaving a large air space in a certain area.